• L2 reading research

    Keywords: cross-linguistic transfer, morphological awareness

    Reviewed by S. Ke, R. Miller, D. Zhang & K. Koda in Language Learning

    1. *Chen, X., Ramírez, G., Luo, Y. C., Geva, E., & Ku, Y. M. (2012). Comparing vocabulary development in Spanish-and Chinese-speaking ELLs: The effects of metalinguistic and sociocultural factors. Reading and Writing25, 1991–2020. doi: 10.1007/s11145-011-9318-7
    2. *Cho, J. R., Chiu, M. M., & McBride-Chang, C. (2011). Morphological awareness, phonological awareness, and literacy development in Korean and English: A 2-year longitudinal study. Scientific Studies of Reading15, 383–408. doi: 10.1080/10888438.2010.487143
    3. *D'Angelo, N., Hipfner-Boucher, K., & Chen, X. (2017). Predicting growth in English and French vocabulary: The facilitating effects of morphological and cognate awareness. Developmental Psychology53, 1242-1255. 
    4. *Deacon, S. H., Wade-Woolley, L., & Kirby, J. (2007). Crossover: The role of morphological awareness in French immersion children's reading. Developmental psychology, 43, 732–746. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.3.732
    5. *Deacon, S. H., Wade‐Woolley, L., & Kirby, J. R. (2009). Flexibility in young second‐language learners: examining the language specificity of orthographic processing. Journal of Research in Reading32, 215–229. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9817.2009.01392.x
    6. *Farran, L. K., Bingham, G. E., & Matthews, M. W. (2012). The relationship between language and reading in bilingual English-Arabic children. Reading and Writing25, 2153–2181. doi: 10.1007/s11145-011-9352-5
    7. *Filippini, A. L. (2007). Effects of a vocabulary-added instructional intervention for at-risk English learners: Is efficient reading instruction more effective? (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California, Santa Barbara.
    8. *Goodwin, A. P. (2010). Does meaning matter for reading achievement? Untangling the role of phonological recoding and morphological awareness in predicting word decoding, reading vocabulary, and reading comprehension achievement for Spanish-speaking English language learners (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Miami, U.S.A.
    9. *Goodwin, A. P., Huggins, A. C., Carlo, M. S., August, D., & Calderon, M. (2013). Minding morphology: How morphological awareness relates to reading for English language learners. Reading and Writing26, 1387–1415. doi: 10.1007/s11145-012-9412-5
    10. *Gottardo, A., Mirza, A., Koh, P. W., Ferreira, A., & Javier, C. (2018). Unpacking listening comprehension: the role of vocabulary, morphological awareness, and syntactic knowledge in reading comprehension. Reading and Writing31, 1741-1764. doi: 10.1007/s11145-017-9736-2
    11. Hedges, L. & Olkin, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
    12. *Hu, C. F. (2013). Predictors of reading in children with Chinese as a first language: A developmental and cross-linguistic perspective. Reading and Writing26, 163–187. doi: 10.1007/s11145-012-9360-0
    13. *Jeon, E. H. (2011). Contribution of morphological awareness to second‐language reading comprehension. The Modern Language Journal95, 217–235. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01179.x
    14. *Kahn-Horwitz, J., Shimron, J., Sparks, R. L. (2006). Weak and strong novice readers of English as a foreign language: effects of first language and socioeconomic status. Annals of Dyslexia, 56, 161–85. doi: 10.1007/s11881-006-0007-1
    15. *Kieffer, M. J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2008). The role of derivational morphology in the reading comprehension of Spanish-speaking English language learners. Reading and Writing21, 783–804. doi: 10.1007/s11145-007-9092-8
    16. *Kieffer, M. J., & Lesaux, N. K. (2012). Direct and indirect roles of morphological awareness in the English reading comprehension of native English, Spanish, Filipino, and Vietnamese speakers. Language Learning62, 1170–1204. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00722.x
    17. *Kieffer, M. J., Biancarosa, G., & Mancilla-Martinez, J. (2013). Roles of morphological awareness in the reading comprehension of Spanish-speaking language minority learners: Exploring partial mediation by vocabulary and reading fluency. Applied Psycholinguistics34, 697–725. doi: 10.1017/S0142716411000920
    18. * Lam, K., & Chen, X. (2018). The crossover effects of morphological awareness on vocabulary development among children in French immersion. Reading and Writing31, 1893–1921. doi: 10.1007/s11145-017-9809-2
    19. *Logan, B. (2010). The role of morphological awareness in the reading development of English language learners. Seattle: University of Washington.
    20. *Lok, K. Y. Y. (2014). The crossover effects of morphological awareness on literacy outcomes among children in French immersion (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). Toronto: University of Toronto.
    21. *Luo, Y. C., Chen, X., & Geva, E. (2014). Concurrent and longitudinal cross-linguistic transfer of phonological awareness and morphological awareness in Chinese-English bilingual children. Written Language & Literacy17(1), 89-115.
    22. *Neugebauer, S. R., Kieffer, M. J., & Howard, E. R. (2015). Exploring multidimensionality and mediation in the roles of lexical knowledge in reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking language minority learners. Learning and Individual Differences39, 24–38. doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.03.003
    23. *Park, E. C. (2004). The relationship between morphological awareness and lexical inference skills for English language learning with Korean first-language background (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Carnegie Mellon University, U.S.A.
    24. * Ramírez, G., Chen, X., Geva, E., & Kiefer, H. (2010). Morphological awareness in Spanish-speaking English language learners: Within and cross-language effects on word reading. Reading and Writing23, 337–358. doi: 10.1017/S0142716411000233
    25. * Ramírez, G., Chen, X., & Pasquarella, A. (2013). Cross-linguistic transfer of morphological awareness in Spanish-speaking English language learners: The facilitating effect of cognate knowledge. Topics in Language Disorders33, 73–92. doi: 10.1097/TLD.0b013e318280f55a
    26. * Saiegh-Haddad, E., & Geva, E. (2008). Morphological awareness, phonological awareness, and reading in English–Arabic bilingual children. Reading and Writing21(5), 481–504.
    27. * Schiff, R., & Calif, S. (2007). Role of phonological and morphological awareness in L2 oral word reading. Language Learning57, 271–298. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2007.00409.x
    28. * Sun, B., & Curdt-Christiansen, X. L. (2016). Morphological awareness and reading development in bilingual English-Chinese children in Singapore. In R.E. Silver, W.D. Bokhorst-Heng (eds.), Quadrilingual Education in Singapore (pp. 83-101). Springer: Singapore.
    29. *Tong, X., McBride, C., Ho, C. S. H., Waye, M. M. Y., Chung, K. K. H., Wong, S. W. L., & Chow, B. W. Y. (2018). Within-and cross-language contributions of morphological awareness to word reading and vocabulary in Chinese–English bilingual learners. Reading and Writing31(8), 1765-1786. doi: 10.1007/s11145-017-9812-7
    30. *Wang, M., Ko, I. Y., & Choi, J. (2009). The importance of morphological awareness in Korean–English biliteracy acquisition. Contemporary Educational Psychology34, 132-142. doi: 10.1016/j.cedpsych.2008.12.002
    31. * Wang, M., Yang, C., & Cheng, C. (2009). The contributions of phonology, orthography, and morphology in Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 291–314. doi:10.1017/S0142716409090122
    32. * Zhang, D., Chin, C. F., & Li, L. (2017). Metalinguistic awareness in bilingual children's word reading: A cross-lagged panel study on cross-linguistic transfer facilitation. Applied Psycholinguistics38, 395–426. doi: 10.1017/S0142716416000278
    33. *Zhang, D., Koda, K., Leong, C. K., & Pang, E. (2019). Cross‐lagged panel analysis of reciprocal effects of morphological processing and reading in Chinese in a multilingual context. Journal of Research in Reading42, 58-79. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.12135
    34. *Zhou, Y., McBride, C., Leung, J. S. M., Wang, Y., Joshi, M., & Farver, J. (2018). Chinese and English reading-related skills in L1 and L2 Chinese-speaking children in Hong Kong. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience33, 300-312. doi: 10.1080/23273798.2017.1342848

    Reviewed by S. Ke & F. Xiao (2015) in Language Awareness:

    1. Cheung, H., Chung, K. K. H., Wong, S. W. L., McBride-Chang, C., Penney, T. B., Ho, C. S. -H. (2010). Speech perception, metalinguistic awareness, reading, and vocabulary in Chinese-English bilingual children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(2), 367-380.
    2. Pasquarella, A., Chen, X., Lam, K., & Luo, Y. C. (2011). Cross-language transfer of morphological awareness in Chinese-English bilinguals. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(1), 23-42.
    3. Wang, M., Cheng, C., & Chen, S. -W. (2006). Contribution of morphological awareness to Chinese_English biliteracy acquisition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(3), 542-553.
    4. Wang, M., Yang, C., & Cheng, C. (2009). The contributions of phonology, orthography, and morphology in Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition. Applied Psycholinguistics, 20, 291-314.
    5. Yeh, Y. -F. (2010). The cross-linguistic morphological awareness transfer: The development of Chinese-speaking adolescent learners’ English morphological awareness. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University.
    6. Zhang, D., & Koda, K. (2013). Morphological awareness and reading comprehension in a foreign language: A study of young Chinese EFL learners. System, 41, 901-913.
    7. Zhang, D., & Koda, K. (2014). Awareness of derivation and compounding in Chinese-English biliteracy acquisition. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 17, 55-73.
    8. Zhang, D., Koda, K., & Sun, X. (2014). Morphological awareness in biliteracy acquisition: A study of young Chinese EFL readers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18(6), 570-585.
  • L2 Chinese LEARNING & TEACHING (ongoing)

    L2 Chinese reading (Reviewed by S. Ke, 2020 in Frontiers of Education in China)

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    2. *Bassetti, B. (2009). Effects of adding interword spacing on Chinese reading: A comparison of Chinese native readers and English readers of Chinese as a second language. Applied Psycholinguistics30(04), 757–775.
    3. *Cao, F., Sussman, B. L., Rios, V., Yan, X., Wang, Z., Spray,G. J., & Mack, R. M. (2017). Different mechanisms in learning different second languages: Evidence from English speakers learning Chinese and Spanish. NeuroImage148, 284 –295.
    4. *Chang, L. Y., Stafura, J. Z., Rickles, B., Chen, H. C., & Perfetti, C. A. (2015). Incremental learning of Chinese orthography: ERP indicators of animated and static stroke displays on character form and meaning acquisition. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 33, 78 –95.
    5. *Chang, L. Y., Xu, Y., Perfetti, C. A., Zhang, J., & Chen, H. C. (2014). Supporting orthographic learning at the beginning stage of learning to read Chinese as a second language. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 61(3), 288–305.
    6. *Chen, H. C., Hsu, C. C., Chang, L. Y., Lin, Y. C., Chang, K. E., &  Sung, Y. T. (2013). Using a radical-derived character e-learning platform to increase learner knowledge of Chinese characters. Language Learning & Technology17(1), 89 –106.
    7. *Chen, L., Perfetti, C., Leng, Y., & Li, Y. (2018). Word superiority effect for native Chinese readers and low-proficiency Chinese learners. Applied Psycholinguistics39(6), 1097-1115.
    8. *Chen, T. (2018). The contribution of morphological awareness to lexical inferencing in L2 Chinese: Comparing more‐skilled and less‐skilled learners. Foreign Language Annals51(4), 816-830.
    9. *Chen, M. P., Wang, L. C., Chen, H. J., & Chen, Y. C. (2014). Effects of type of multimedia strategy on learning of Chinese characters for non-native novices. Computers & Education, 70, 41 –52.
    10. *Chuang, H. Y., & Ku, H. Y. (2011). The effect of computer‐based multimedia instruction with Chinese character recognition. Educational Media International48(1), 27-41.
    11. *Chung, K. K. (2007). Presentation factors in the learning of Chinese characters: The order and position of Hanyu pinyin and English translations. Educational Psychology27(1), 1-20.
    12. *Chung, K. K. (2008). What effect do mixed sensory mode instructional formats have on both novice and experienced learners of Chinese characters?. Learning and Instruction18(1), 96-108.
    13. *Du, X. (2017). Rethink about heritage language learning: A case study of children’s Mandarin Chinese learning at a community language school in Ontario, Canada. Language and Literacy19(1), 4–20.
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    19. *Han, Z., & Chen, C. L. A. (2010). Repeated-reading-based instructional strategy and vocabulary acquisition: A case study of a heritage speaker of Chinese. Reading in a Foreign Language, 22(2), 242 –262.
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    22. *Hsiao, H. S., Chang, C. S., Chen, C. J., Wu, C. H., & Lin, C. Y. (2015). The influence of Chinese character handwriting diagnosis and remedial instruction system on learners of Chinese as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning28(4), 306-324.
    23. *Huang, S. (2018). Effective Strategy Groups Used by Readers of Chinese as a Foreign Language. Reading in a Foreign Language30(1), 1-28.
    24. *Hwa, S. P., Weei, P. S., & Len, L. H. (2012). The effects of blended learning approach through an interactive multimedia e-book on students’ achievement in learning Chinese as a second language at tertiary level. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching (IJCALLT)2(1), 35-50.
    25. *Jin, H. G. (2003). Empirical evidence on character recognition in multimedia Chinese tasks. Concentric: Studies in English Literature and Linguistics, 29(2), 36 –58.
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    27. *Ke, S. & Chan, S-D. (2017). Strategy use in L2 Chinese  reading: The effect of L1 background and L2 proficiency. System: An International Journal of Educational Technology and Applied Linguistics, 66, 27 –38.
    28. *Ke, S. & Koda, K. (2017). Contributions of morphological awareness to adult L2 Chinese word meaning inferencing. The Modern Language Journal, 101 (4), 742-755.
    29. *Kim, S. A., Packard, J., Christianson, K., Anderson, R. C.,  & Shin, J. A. (2016). Orthographic consistency and individual learner differences in second language literacy acquisition. Reading and Writing29(7), 1409 –1434.
    30. *Kim, S. Y., Qi, T., Feng, X., Ding, G., Liu, L., & Cao, F. (2016). How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean–Chinese–English trilinguals. NeuroImage129, 25 –39.
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    44. *Liu, Y., Dunlap, S., Fiez, J., & Perfetti, C. (2007). Evidence for neural accommodation to a writing system following learning. Human Brain Mapping, 28(11), 1223 –1234.
    45. *Lü, C. (2017). The Roles of Pinyin Skill in English‐Chinese Biliteracy Learning: Evidence From Chinese Immersion Learners. Foreign Language Annals50(2), 306 –322.
    46. *Lü, C., & Koda, K. (2011). Impact of Home Language and Literacy Support on English Chinese Biliteracy Acquisition among Chinese Heritage Language Learners. Heritage Language Journal8(2), 44 –80.
    47. *Lü, C., & Koda, K. (2017). The roles of phonological awareness and oral vocabulary knowledge in English-Chinese biliteracy acquisition among Chinese heritage language learners. Heritage Language Journal, 14 (1), 54 –72.
    48. Lü, C., Koda, K., Zhang, D., & Zhang, Y. (2015). Effects of semantic radical properties on character meaning extraction and inference among learners of Chinese as a foreign language. Writing Systems Research, 7(2), 169 –185.
    49. *Lu, M. T. P., Hallman, G., & Black, J. (2013). Chinese character learning: Using embodied animations in initial stages. Journal of Technology and Chinese Language Teaching, 4(2), 1 –24.
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    57. *Shei, C., & Hsieh, H. P. (2012). Linkit: a CALL system for learning Chinese characters, words, and phrases. Computer Assisted Language Learning25(4), 319-338.
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    73. *Wang, L., & Blackwell, A. A. (2015). Effects of dual coded multimedia instruction employing image morphing on learning a logographic language. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia24(3), 281-313.
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    75. *Wang, Y., McBride, C., Zhou, Y., Malatesha Joshi, R., &  Farver, J. A. M. (2017). Becoming literate in Chinese: a comparison of native‐speaking and non‐native‐speaking children. Journal of Research in Reading. Online advanced publication. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.12122
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    78. *Wong, Y. K. (2017). Relationships between reading comprehension  and its components in young Chinese-as-a-second-language learners. Reading and Writing30(5), 969 –988.
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    83. *Yum, Y. N., Law, S. P., Lee, C. F., & Shum, M. S. K. (2018). Early event‐related potentials differences in orthographic processing of native and non‐native Chinese readers. Journal of Research in Reading41(3), 403-422.
    84. *Yum, Y. N., Law, S. P., Mo, K. N., Lau, D., Su, I. F., & Shum, M. S. (2016). Electrophysiological evidence of sublexical phonological access in character processing by L2 Chinese learners of L1 alphabetic scripts. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience16(2), 339 –352.
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    86. *Zahradníková, M. (2016). A qualitative inquiry of character  learning strategies by Chinese L2 beginners. Chinese as a Second Language. The Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association51(2), 117 –137.
    87. *Zeguers, M. H., van den Boer, M., Snellings, P., & de Jong, P. F. (2018). Universal and language-specific predictors of early word reading in a foreign language: An analysis of the skills that underlie reading acquisition in three different orthographies. Developmental psychology54(12), 2274.
    88. *Zhang, D. (2017). Word reading in L1 and L2 learners of Chinese: similarities and differences in the functioning of component processes. The Modern Language Journal101(2), 391 –411.
    89. *Zhang, H., & Koda, K. (2018). Vocabulary knowledge and morphological awareness in Chinese as a heritage language (CHL) reading comprehension ability. Reading and Writing31(1), 53-74.
    90. *Zhang, J., Li, H., Dong, Q., Xu, J., & Sholar, E. (2016). Implicit  use of radicals in learning characters for nonnative learners of Chinese. Applied Psycholinguistics37(3), 507 –527.
    91. *Zhang, Y., & Li, R. (2016). The role of morphological awareness  in the incidental learning of Chinese characters among CSL learners. Language Awareness25(3), 179 –196.
    92. *Zhao, A., Guo, Y., & Dynia, J. (2013). Foreign language reading  anxiety: Chinese as a foreign language in the United States. The Modern Language Journal97(3), 764 –778.
    93. *Zhou, J. (2017). Foreign language reading anxiety in a Chinese as a foreign language context. Reading in a Foreign Language29(1), 155–173.
    94. *Zhou, Y., McBride, C., Leung, J. S. M., Wang, Y., Joshi, M., & Farver, J. (2018). Chinese and English reading-related skills in L1 and L2 Chinese-speaking children in Hong Kong. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience33(3), 300-312.

    Vocabulary learning and teaching

    1. Bai, X., Liang, F., Blythe, H. I., Zang, C., Yan, G., & Liversedge, S. P. (2013). Interword spacing effects on the acquisition of new vocabulary for readers of Chinese as a second language. Journal of Research in Reading36, S4-S17.
    2. Cheng, Z. (2000) Word structure and vocabulary acquisition: Theory and application to mandarin Chinese as a second/foreign language. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Florida.
    3. Kim, J. (2015). The Effect of various word treatments on Chinese vocabulary comprehension during multimedia language learning. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Brigham Young University.
    4. Koda, K. & Ke, S. (2018). 外语词语习得能力 的培养 [Promoting vocabulary learning competence in a foreign language]. 国际汉语教学研究 [ Journal of International Chinese Teaching], 18(4), 36-40.
    5. Lan, Y. J., Fang, S. Y., Legault, J., & Li, P. (2015). Second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese vocabulary: Context of learning effects. Educational Technology Research and Development63(5), 671-690.
    6. Lee, C. H., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Effectiveness of different pinyin presentation formats in learning Chinese characters: A cognitive load perspective. Language Learning61(4), 1099-1118.
    7. Liu, X. (2013). Investigations into Chinese vocabulary learning strategies by learners of Chinese as a foreign language in United States of institutions of higher education. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Boston University.
    8. Shen, H. H. (2008a). 认知理论及其在汉语作为二语的字词教学中的应用 [Cognitive theories and their application in Chinese vocabulary instruction Studies of Chinese Characters]. 中国文字研究 [The Study of Chinese Characters], 10 (1), 149-158.
    9. Shen, H. H. (2008b). An analysis of word decision strategies among learners of Chinese, Foreign Language Annals, 41, 501-524.
    10. Shen, H. H. (2009). Size and Strength: Written vocabulary acquisition among advanced learners. 世界汉语教学[Chinese Teaching in the World ], 23 (1), 74-85.
    11. Xiao, R., Rayson, P., & McEnery, T. (2015). A frequency dictionary of Mandarin Chinese: Core vocabulary for learners. Routledge.
    12. Xu, Y., Chang, L. Y., Zhang, J., & Perfetti, C. A. (2013). Reading, writing, and animation in character learning in Chinese as a foreign language. Foreign Language Annals46(3), 423-444.
    13. Wilujeng, N. C. S., & Lan, Y. J. (2015). Online Comic in Mandarin Chinese's Vocabulary Learning: A Case Study of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. IAFOR Journal of Education3(2), 31-52.
    14. Wong, L. H., King, R. B., Chai, C. S., & Liu, M. (2016). Seamlessly learning Chinese: contextual meaning making and vocabulary growth in a seamless Chinese as a second language learning environment. Instructional science44(5), 399-422.
    15. Zhang, H. (2016). Does morphology play an important role in L2 Chinese vocabulary acquisition?. Foreign Language Annals49(2), 384-402.
    16. Zhou, N. (2008). The study of minimum basic vocabulary in non-native environment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. China: Shandong University.
    17. Zhou, W. (2013). A singing approach to shared reading: The effects upon U.S. kindergarteners’ Chinese vocabulary acquisition and retention. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Michigan State University.


    1. Xing, J. (2010). Pronunciation. In Xing, J. (Ed.), Teaching and Learning Chinese Foreign Language: A pedagogical Grammar (pp.87-100). Hong Kong University Press.
    2. Godfroid, A., Lin, C. H., & Ryu, C. (2017). Hearing and seeing tone through color: An efficacy study of web‐based, multimodal Chinese tone perception training. Language Learning, 67(4), 819-857.


    Task-based teaching & learning

    1. Han, Z. (2018). Task-Based Learning in Task-Based Teaching: Training Teachers of Chinese as a Foreign Language. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics38, 162-186.
    2. Lu, S. (2011). Using Tasks Effectively to Teach Chinese as a Foreign Language to College Students in the USA. Unpublished Master thesis. NJ: Seton Hall University.
    3. Du, X., & Kirkebæk, M. J. (Eds.). (2012). Exploring task-based PBL in Chinese teaching and learning. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

    K-12 curriculum and instruction

    1. Ke, S. (2018, November). A survey and evaluation of K-12 Chinese textbook usage in the U.S. In Ke, S. (Chair), Liu, G., Wang, H. & Gu, Z., Curriculum Assessment for High School Level Chinese Education in the U.S. Session conducted at the 2018 ACTFL Annual Convention and World Languages Expo, Louisiana. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1tATLddHmiWsl9RwdvvGpbdtGTYk9Pdvz/view?usp=sharing